Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines

TitleShould trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsKennedy, CE, Yeh, PT, Johnson, C, Baggaley, R
JournalAIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number09540121 (ISSN)
KeywordsAIDS Serodiagnosis, article, Cambodia, Community Health Workers, Counseling, Delegation, Professional, dried blood spot testing, health auxiliary, health care facility, HIV Infections, HIV Seropositivity, HIV test, HIV testing, HTS, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Humans, lay providers, Malawi, Mass Screening, patient acuity, Patient Satisfaction, practice guideline, Practice Guidelines as Topic, predictive value, priority journal, professional delegation, Professional-Patient Relations, professional-patient relationship, program sustainability, Sensitivity and Specificity, serodiagnosis, SOUTH Africa, systematic review, task sharing, task shifting, World Health Organization

New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users’ values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients’ uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p < 0.001). In Malawi, a pre/post study showed increases in HTS sites and tests after delegation to lay providers. Studies from Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally. © 2017 World Health Organization. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.