Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Risk of mother-reported child abuse in the first 3 years of life

TitleRisk of mother-reported child abuse in the first 3 years of life
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsWindham, AM, Rosenberg, L, Fuddy, L, McFarlane, E, Sia, C, Duggan, AK
JournalChild Abuse and Neglect
ISBN Number01452134 (ISSN)
KeywordsAdult, alcohol consumption, article, assault, Child, child abuse, Child development, child parent relation, Child, Preschool, childbirth, demography, depression, Domestic Violence, drug use, family violence, Female, high risk population, House Calls, human, Humans, Income, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Longitudinal Studies, low birth weight, major clinical study, Male, mother child relation, Mother-Child Relations, newborn, Partner violence, Perception, population research, Psychological abuse, Psychometrics, psychometry, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors, Self Concept, self esteem, Self Report, sex difference, small for date infant, Social Support, socioeconomics, Substance-Related Disorders, Temperament, Truth Disclosure

Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of newborns identified as at-risk for child maltreatment (n=595). Families were assessed annually from the child's birth through age 3 using instruments with established psychometric properties. Independent variables investigated included: family socio-demographics, parity, mother's social support, maternal depression, maternal problem drug or alcohol use, partner violence, child's age, child's sex, low birth weight/small for gestational age (SGA), and mother's perception of child's demand level. Associations with maltreatment were examined using multivariable methods for longitudinal data. Results: Child severe physical assault was significantly associated with parent characteristics (maternal depression and partner violence); and child characteristics (SGA). Assault to the child's self-esteem was significantly associated with maternal depression, maternal illicit drug use, partner violence and mother's perception of child's demand level. Controlling for family sociodemographic characteristics did not change the associations. Likewise, while mother's perception of child demand level had an independent association with self-esteem assault, the associations described above persisted while demand level was held constant. In this high-risk sample, abuse was not associated with mother's age, education, race, parity, or household income level. Conclusions: While characteristics such as SGA can serve as markers for increased abuse risk, they are not amenable to intervention after the child is born. However, certain other risk factors, such as maternal depression and domestic violence are malleable and should be targeted for intervention with the goal of preventing child maltreatment. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.