Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Menstrual cycle and detectable human papillomavirus in reproductive-age women: A time series study

TitleMenstrual cycle and detectable human papillomavirus in reproductive-age women: A time series study
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsLiu, SH, Brotman, RM, Zenilman, JM, Gravitt, PE, Cummings, DA
JournalThe Journal of Infectious Diseases
Date PublishedNov
ISBN Number1537-6613 (Electronic)0022-1899 (Linking)
Accession Number23885113
KeywordsSexual and Reproductive Health

Background. Current evidence on the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection and menstrual cycle has been inconsistent. Methods. We included 21 nonoral contraceptive pill (non-OCP) users who self-collected vaginal samples twice per week for 16 weeks. We explored whether variable detection of HPV DNA exhibited cyclic or other structured temporal patterns. We also evaluated relationships between serial HPV prevalence, sexual behavior, and suspected bacterial vaginosis (BV) as defined by Nugent Gram stain score >/=7. Results. During follow-up, any-type HPV prevalence varied between 61.1% and 85.0%. Although not statistically significant, we observed a maximum autocorrelation in serial HPV prevalence lagging 14 days (correlation coefficient [rho], -0.24). Any-type HPV detection had a periodic behavior, generally repeating every 28.0 days (bootstrapped interquartile range, 22.4-28.0) and peaking around the ovulation time (adjusted odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.62) as compared to menstruation. We also showed that an increase in any-type HPV prevalence preceded the beginning of a menstrual cycle by 9-12 days. There was no evidence of relationships between HPV prevalence and sexual activity or Nugent score. Conclusions. Serially detected any-type HPV DNA showed a periodic behavior and was likely to peak in the periovulatory phase among non-OCP users.