Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Adherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets is associated with decreased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus

TitleAdherence to the DASH and Mediterranean diets is associated with decreased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsIzadi, V, Tehrani, H, Haghighatdoost, F, Dehghan, A, Surkan, PJ, Azadbakht, L
Date PublishedOct
ISBN Number1873-1244 (Electronic)0899-9007 (Linking)
Accession Number27189908
Keywords*Diet, Mediterranean, Adult, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Case-Control Studies, Diabetes, Gestational/blood/*diet therapy/*prevention & control, Dietary approaches to stop hypertension, Female, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Glucose tolerance, Humans, Iran, Mediterranean diet, Pregnancy, Pregnant Women, Risk Factors, Risk Reduction Behavior, Young Adult

OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) or Mediterranean (MED) diets and prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the two diets and GDM. METHODS: In a case-control hospital-based study, pregnant women with (n = 200) and without (n = 260) GMD were recruited. An average of three 24-h dietary records were used to assess participants' dietary intakes. DASH scores were calculated based on the Fung method and MED scores were calculated using the Trichopoulou method. GDM was defined as fasting glucose >95 mg/dL or 1-h postprandial glucose >140 mg/dL for the first time in the pregnancy. The risk for GDM was assessed across tertiles of DASH and MED scores. RESULTS: DASH and MED diets were negatively related to fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and serum triacylglycerol concentrations. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly higher for those in the top tertile of the DASH diet but not the MED diet in comparison with the lowest tertile. Total serum cholesterol level was lower in the third tertile of the MED diet but not in the DASH diet. Participants in the highest tertile of the MED diet had 80% lower risk for GDM compared with those in the lowest tertile (Ptrend = 0.006). Greater adherence to the DASH eating plan was associated with 71% reduced risk for GDM (Ptrend = 0.006) after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Adherence to either the DASH or Mediterranean diet is associated with decreased risk for GDM.