Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Vitamin D levels in Malawian infants from birth to 24 months

TitleVitamin D levels in Malawian infants from birth to 24 months
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsAmukele, TK, Soko, D, Katundu, P, Kamanga, M, Sun, J, Kumwenda, NI, Taha, TE
JournalArchives of Disease in Childhood
Date PublishedMar
ISBN Number00039888 (ISSN)
Accession Number23220204
Keywordsarticle, body mass, breast milk, Child, childbirth, colecalciferol, descriptive research, ergocalciferol, exploratory research, Female, follow up, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Infant, isotope dilution assay, limit of detection, liquid chromatography, major clinical study, Malawi, malnutrition, maternal plasma, milk level, morbidity, newborn, preschool child, priority journal, puerperium, stunting, tandem mass spectrometry, virus load, vitamin blood level, vitamin D

We measured longitudinal levels of vitamin D in unsupplemented Malawian infants at 0 (birth), 2, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months of age. Matched maternal plasma and breast milk vitamin D2 and D3 levels were also measured at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Vitamin D was measured using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Vitamin D 3 levels in children were 36% of adult levels at birth, 60% of adult levels at age 2 months, and at par with adult levels by 12 months of age. This adult-equivalent level is subsequently maintained through age 24 months and consisted of a 98% molar ratio of vitamin D3. Vitamin D levels in breast milk were below the limit of detection, 0.1 ng/ml. Breast milk of unsupplemented Malawian mothers is a poor source of vitamin D.