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Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

A spatial analysis of race, local health-promoting resources and preventable hospitalizations

TitleA spatial analysis of race, local health-promoting resources and preventable hospitalizations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsBell, CN, Bowie, JV, Thorpe, R. J., J, Levine, DM
JournalPrev Med
Volume105
Pagination149-155
Date PublishedSep 14
ISBN Number0091-7435
Accession Number28917951
KeywordsAfrican Americans, hospitalization, Residence Characteristics
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Preventable hospitalizations (PHs) for chronic conditions could have been avoided if treated with primary healthcare. PH rates are higher among African Americans, and in areas with less healthcare. Little is known about the effects of non-healthcare local health-promoting resources (LHPRs). The objective of this study is to determine associations between LHPRs and chronic PH rates in Maryland, and to assess spatial clustering of areas with high PH rates. METHODS: Hospitalizations in 2010 were obtained from the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission by zip code of residence. Negative binomial regressions were used to determine associations between PH rates and LHPRs by race. Clusters of zip codes with high PH rates were assessed using the spatial Scan Statistic. RESULTS: PH rates were associated with family practitioners (IRR=0.98, 95% CI=0.97-0.99), physicians' assistants (IRR=0.98, 95% CI=0.96-0.99), internists (IRR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03), teaching hospitals (IRR=1.21, 95% CI=1.04-1.40), and local health departments (IRR=1.19, 95% CI=1.03-1.37). No LHPRs were associated with PHs among whites, but African American PH rates were associated with family practitioners (IRR=0.97, 95% CI=0.94-0.99), nurse practitioners (IRR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06), teaching hospitals (IRR=1.37, 95% CI=1.08-1.75) and gyms/recreational centers (IRR=0.85, 95% CI=0.73-0.99). Clusters of areas with high PH rates varied by race. African American PH clusters had fewer family practitioners and more federally qualified health centers and teaching hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Public health practitioners should look to LHPRs beyond physician supply or public clinics to address PHs, particularly among African Americans. Specific LHPRs could be used to target African American PH rates and clusters.