Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Socioeconomic status and trajectory of overweight from birth to mid-childhood: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

TitleSocioeconomic status and trajectory of overweight from birth to mid-childhood: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsJones-Smith, JC, Dieckmann, MG, Gottlieb, L, Chow, J, Fernald, LC
JournalPLoS One
ISBN Number1932-6203
Accession Number24950056
Keywords*Social Class, Child, Preschool, Cohort Studies, Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data, Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data, Female, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Longitudinal Studies, Male, Obesity/epidemiology/ethnology, Odds Ratio, Overweight/*epidemiology/*ethnology, Sex Distribution, United States/epidemiology/ethnology

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n approximately 4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO Childhood Growth Standard reference mean; henceforth, "overweight/obesity") according to age, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not by sex. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with socioeconomic status among whites, Hispanics and Asians; the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity began to diverge according to SES after the first 9 months of life. By approximately 4 years, children with the highest SES had a significantly lower odds of overweight/obesity. SES was not significantly related to overweight/obesity among African Americans and American Indians during early childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have assessed the associations between SES and overweight/obesity within racial/ethnic groups in the US. We find that in contemporary, US-born children, SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity among more racial/ethnic groups (whites, Hispanics, and Asians) than previously reported.