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Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Morbidity and mortality among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants from Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania

TitleMorbidity and mortality among a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and uninfected pregnant women and their infants from Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsChilongozi, D, Wang, L, Brown, L, Taha, T, Valentine, M, Emel, L, Sinkala, M, Kafulafula, G, Noor, RA, Read, JS, Brown, ER, Goldenberg, RL, Hoffman, I, Team, HS
JournalThe Pediatric infectious disease journal
Volume27
Pagination808-814
Date PublishedSep
ISBN Number0891-3668; 0891-3668
Accession Number18679152
KeywordsAdult, Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use, CD4 Lymphocyte Count, Female, HIV Infections/epidemiology/mortality/prevention & control/transmission, HIV-1/isolation & purification, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control, Longitudinal Studies, Malawi, Multivariate Analysis, Pregnancy, Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology/mortality, Pregnant Women, Proportional Hazards Models, Risk Factors, Survival Analysis, tanzania, Time Factors, Viral Load, Zambia
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality patterns among pregnant women and their infants (before antiretroviral therapy was widely available) determines HIV-1 diagnostic, monitoring, and care interventions. METHODS: Data from mothers and their infants enrolled in a trial of antibiotics to reduce mother-to-child-transmission of HIV-1 at 4 sub-Saharan African sites were analyzed. Women were enrolled during pregnancy and follow-up continued until the infants reached 12 months of age. We describe maternal and infant morbidity and mortality in a cohort of HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected mothers. Maternal and infant factors associated with mortality risk in the infants were assessed using Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS: Among 2292 HIV-1-infected mothers, 166 (7.2%) had a serious adverse event (SAE) and 42 (1.8%) died, whereas no deaths occurred among the 331 HIV-1 uninfected mothers. Four hundred twenty-four (17.8%) of 2383 infants had an SAE and 349 (16.4%) died before the end of follow-up. Infants with early HIV-1 infection (birth to 4-6 weeks) had the highest mortality. Among infants born to HIV-1-infected women, maternal morbidity and mortality (P = 0.0001), baseline CD4 count (P = 0.0002), and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration (P < 0.0001) were significant predictors of infant mortality in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality among infants with early HIV-1 infection supports access to HIV-1 diagnostics and appropriate early treatment for all infants of HIV-1-infected mothers. The significant association between stage of maternal HIV-1 infection and infant mortality supports routine CD4 counts at the time of prenatal HIV-1 testing.

PMCID

2739309