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Magnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

TitleMagnesium supplementation affects metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsAsemi, Z, Karamali, M, Jamilian, M, Foroozanfard, F, Bahmani, F, Heidarzadeh, Z, Benisi-Kohansal, S, Surkan, PJ, Esmaillzadeh, A
JournalAm J Clin Nutr
Volume102
Pagination222-9
Date PublishedJul
ISBN Number1938-3207 (Electronic)0002-9165 (Linking)
Accession Number26016859
Keywords*Pregnancy Outcome, Adult, Blood Glucose/metabolism, Body Mass Index, C-Reactive Protein/metabolism, Diabetes, Gestational/*drug therapy/metabolism, Dietary Supplements, Double-Blind Method, Fasting, Female, gestational diabetes, Humans, Insulin Resistance, Insulin/blood, magnesium, Magnesium Deficiency/blood/drug therapy, Magnesium/*administration & dosage/blood, Oxidative Stress/drug effects, Pregnancy, Pregnancy outcomes, Pregnant Women, supplementation
Abstract

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, prior research has not examined the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in maternal-child dyads affected by gestational diabetes (GDM). OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the effects of magnesium supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in magnesium-deficient pregnant women with GDM. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 70 women with GDM. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium oxide (n = 35) or a placebo (n = 35) for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 6-wk intervention. RESULTS: The change in serum magnesium concentration was greater in women consuming magnesium than in the placebo group (+0.06 +/- 0.3 vs. -0.1 +/- 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02). However, after controlling for baseline magnesium concentrations, the changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not significantly different between the groups. Changes in fasting plasma glucose (-9.7 +/- 10.1 vs. +1.8 +/- 8.1 mg/dL, P < 0.001), serum insulin concentration (-2.1 +/- 6.5 vs. +5.7 +/- 10.7 muIU/mL, P = 0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.5 +/- 1.3 vs. +1.4 +/- 2.3, P < 0.001), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated beta-cell function (-4.0 +/- 28.7 vs. +22.0 +/- 43.8, P = 0.006), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.004 +/- 0.021 vs. -0.012 +/- 0.015, P = 0.005) in supplemented women were significantly different from those in women in the placebo group. Changes in serum triglycerides (+2.1 +/- 63.0 vs. +38.9 +/- 37.5 mg/dL, P = 0.005), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (-432.8 +/- 2521.0 vs. +783.2 +/- 2470.1 ng/mL, P = 0.03), and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (-0.5 +/- 1.6 vs. +0.3 +/- 1.2 mumol/L, P = 0.01) were significantly different between the supplemented women and placebo group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a lower incidence of newborn hyperbilirubinemia (8.8% vs. 29.4%, P = 0.03) and newborn hospitalization (5.9% vs. 26.5%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Magnesium supplementation among women with GDM had beneficial effects on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir as IRCT201503055623N39.