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Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

Homosexuality tolerance among male and female vietnamese youth: An examination of traditional sexual values, self-esteem, and demographic/contextual characteristics

TitleHomosexuality tolerance among male and female vietnamese youth: An examination of traditional sexual values, self-esteem, and demographic/contextual characteristics
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsNguyen, TQ, Blum, RW
JournalJournal of Adolescent Health
Volume55
Pagination823-829
ISBN Number1054139X (ISSN)
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, article, Asian, Attitude, Correlates of homophobia, demography, Educational Status, Female, health survey, Homophobia, Homosexuality, human, Internet, lesbianism, major clinical study, Male, male homosexuality, Marriage, predictor variable, Self Concept, self esteem, Self-esteem, sex difference, sexual behavior, structural equation modeling, Traditional values, urban area, Vietnamese, Youth
Abstract

Purpose Disapproval of homosexuality is the cause of tremendous suffering among sexual minorities. No research has examined determinants of Vietnamese attitudes toward homosexuality. This article examined predictors of such attitudes among Vietnamese youth. Methods Data were from Vietnamese youth aged 15-24 years nationally surveyed in 2009 (Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth II). We evaluated structural equation models in which homosexuality tolerance was conceptualized to be influenced by two tiers of predictors: tier 1 (more proximal) including traditional sexual values and self-esteem and tier 2 (more distal) including demographic/contextual variables (urban residence, college education, Internet use, age, and marital status). Female (n = 3,135) and male (n = 3,072) data were analyzed separately. Results Sexual conservativeness predicted intolerance in both men and women; value of fidelity also predicted intolerance in women. Self-esteem was nonsignificant for women; for men, positive self-perception was nonsignificant, but negative self-perception predicted tolerance. College education, urban residence, and Internet use predicted tolerance, with gender differences. Conclusions Findings about traditional sexual values, college education, urban residence, and the gender difference in whether self-esteem matters are consistent with the literature. The positive association of Internet use with tolerance was first theorized and tested in this study. The study informs discussions on practice, in terms of tailoring/targeting attitude change interventions to rural versus urban youth and male versus female youth, capitalizing on the Internet to promote respect of sexual diversity, and locating attitudes toward homosexuality within the broader approach to sexuality.