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Poverty and InequalitySexual and Reproductive HealthFamily, Maternal & Child HealthMethodology

High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence is associated with HIV infection among heterosexual men in Rakai, Uganda

TitleHigh-risk human papillomavirus prevalence is associated with HIV infection among heterosexual men in Rakai, Uganda
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsTobian, AAR, Grabowski, MK, Kigozi, G, Gravitt, PE, Eaton, KP, Serwadda, D, Nalugoda, F, Wawer, MJ, Quinn, TC, Gray, RH
JournalSexually Transmitted Infections
Volume89
Pagination122-127
Date PublishedMar
ISBN Number13684973 (ISSN)
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, article, circumcision, Coinfection, condom, condyloma acuminatum, disease association, heterosexual male, heterosexuality, high risk behavior, HIV Infections, human, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Humans, major clinical study, Male, Middle Aged, Papillomaviridae, papillomavirus infection, Papillomavirus Infections, Prevalence, priority journal, Sexual and Reproductive Health, sexual behavior, Uganda, Young Adult
Abstract

Objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes genital warts, penile cancer and cervical cancer. Africa has one of the highest rates of penile and cervical cancers, but there are little data on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) prevalence in heterosexual men. Knowledge of HR-HPV prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution among heterosexual men is important to establish risk-reduction prevention strategies. Methods: 1578 uncircumcised men aged 15-49 years who enrolled in male circumcision trials in Rakai, Uganda, were evaluated for HR-HPV from swabs of the coronal sulcus/glans using Roche HPV Linear Array. Adjusted prevalence risk ratios (adjPRRs) were estimated using modified Poisson multivariable regression. Results: HPV prevalence (either high risk or low risk) was 90.7% (382/421) among HIV-positive men and 60.9% (596/978) among HIV-negative men (PRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.58). HIV-positive men had a significantly higher risk of infection with three or more HR-HPV genotypes (PRR=5.76, 95% CI 4.27 to 7.79). Among HIV-positive men, high-risk sexual behaviours were not associated with increased HR-HPV prevalence. Among HIV-negative men, HR-HPV prevalence was associated with self-reported genital warts (adjPRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.31). Among all men (both HIV negative and HIV positive), HR-HPV prevalence was associated with more than 10 lifetime sexual partners (adjPRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66), consistent condom use (adjPRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60) and HIV infection (adjPRR 1.80, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.02). HR-HPV prevalence was lower among men who reported no sexual partners during the past year (adjPRR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.94). Conclusion: The burden of HR-HPV infection is high among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa and most pronounced among the HIV-infected individuals.