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Effect of folic acid supplementation on cancer risk among adults with hypertension in China: A randomized clinical trial

TitleEffect of folic acid supplementation on cancer risk among adults with hypertension in China: A randomized clinical trial
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsQin, X, Shen, L, Zhang, R, Li, Y, Wang, X, Wang, B, Jiang, X, Jiang, H, Lei, Y, Hou, FF, Gu, J, Huo, Y
JournalInt J Cancer
Volume141
Pagination837-847
Date PublishedAug 15
ISBN Number1097-0215 (Electronic)0020-7136 (Linking)
Accession Number26991917
KeywordsBaseline folate levels, Cancer incidence, Folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T genotypes
Abstract

The relationship of folic acid supplementation with the risk of cancer remains inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on cancer incidence among adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 20,702 hypertensive adults without history of stroke or MI, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes(CC, CT and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single pill containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid(n = 10,348) or a pill containing 10 mg enalapril alone(n = 10,354). During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, cancer occurred in 116 participants(1.12%) in the enalapril-folic acid group versus 116 participants(1.12%) in the enalapril group (HR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.77-1.29). There was also no significant difference in the HRs for specific types of cancer(esophageal, gastric, breast, lung, colorectal, head and neck, liver and gynecologic cancer or lymphoma) or cancer mortality(HR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.69-1.58). For participants not receiving folic acid treatment (enalapril only group), MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent predictor of total cancer risk compared to CC genotype (HR, 1.86; 95%CI, 1.07-3.22). Consistently, a beneficial effect was observed in participants with MTHFR TT genotype and low folate levels (<9.0 ng/mL; HR, 0.47; 95%CI, 0.24-0.94). There is no evidence that 0.8 mg daily folic acid supplementation can increase the risk of cancer incidence among adults with hypertension without history of stroke or MI in China. Our data suggest a protective effect in participants with MTHFR TT genotype and low folate levels.